1. abandon 6. intensify
2. adversely 7. irrigation
3. aggregate 8. obtain
4. cultivation 9. photosynthesis
5. fertilize 10. precipitation
Definitions and Samples
1. abandon v. To leave; to give up
To save their lives, the sailors had to abandon the sinking ship.
Parts of speech abandonment n
2. adversely adv. In a harmful way; negatively
Excessive rainfall early in the spring can adversely affect the planting
Usage tips Adversely is often followed by affect.
Parts of speech adversity n, adverse adj
3. aggregate adj. Gathered into or amounting to a whole
It is impossible to judge last year’s performance without knowing
the aggregate sales numbers.
Usage tips Aggregate is often followed by a term like sum, total, or
Parts of speech aggregate v, aggregate n
4. cultivation n. Preparing the land to grow crops; improvement for
With the development of land cultivation, hunters and gatherers
were able to settle in one place.
Parts of speech cultivate v
5. fertilize v. To supply with nourishment for plants by adding helpful
substances to the soil
This farm fertilizes tomatoes more than any other crop.
Parts of speech fertilizer n, fertilization n
6. intensify v. To increase in power; to act with increased strength
Jacob’s long absence intensified his certainty that he should marry
Parts of speech intensification n, intense adj
7. irrigation n. The supplying of water to dry land
In dry areas of the country, you can see ditches all over the farmland
Parts of speech irrigate v
8. obtain v. To gain possession of; to get
After a series of difficult interviews, he finally was able to obtain
9. photosynthesis n. The process by which green plants make their
own food by combining water, salts, and carbon dioxide in the presence
Oxygen is a by-product of the process of photosynthesis.
Parts of speech photosynthesize v
10. precipitation n. Water that falls to the Earth’s surface
In the Pacific Northwest, the high level of precipitation ensures rich,
green plant life.
TOEFL Prep I Complete each sentence by filling in the blank with
the best word from the list. Change the form of the word if necessary.
Use each word only once.
abandoned precipitation cultivation fertilize photosynthesis
1. Through __________, green plants create organic materials with the
help of chlorophyll.
2. The coastal city gets half of its __________ during the months of January,
February, and March.
3. Farmers use various methods of land __________.
4. When they heard the hull crack, all but two of the sailors __________
5. Inexperienced gardeners may not realize how important it is that
they __________ their plants.
TOEFL Prep II Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning
to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the
letter in the blank.
1. obtain (a) weaken
2. intensify (b) separate
3. irrigation (c) lose
4. aggregate (d) drainage
5. adversely (e) positively
TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you
have learned. Answer the questions that follow.
In countries like Niger and Mauritania, the cultivation of
land has changed little in the past several centuries.
Additionally, these countries’ mono-modal rainfall pattern
brings precipitation for only three months during the year.
As a result, food production doesn’t nearly meet demand.
Food Crops 5
As a result means
Several agencies and organizations have intensified their efforts to
increase the productivity of land in these countries.They have introduced
new strains of seed, improved irrigation techniques, and introduced new
methods of fertilization and soil management.With ample sunlight for
photosynthesis and modern irrigation techniques, sustainable farming
techniques should allow farmers to boost aggregate production in order
to meet demand.
Still, crop revitalization faces an unexpected adversary: institutional
incompetence.Where crop specialists have convinced individual farmers
to abandon old farming techniques in place of new, they can’t readily
obtain the governmental cooperation they need.The biggest hurdles are
political corruption, incompetence, and the absence of a marketing
1. In this passage, the word adversary is closest in meaning to
2. In the last paragraph, the word they refers to
a. crop specialists
c. farming techniques
Lesson 1 Food Crops
TOEFL Prep I 1. photosynthesis 2. precipitation 3. cultivation
4. abandoned 5. fertilize
TOEFL Prep II 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. e
TOEFL Success 1. c 2. a
Kata TOEFL. Food Crops,